The hot midsummer day was interrupted by a sudden rain. And you, probably, quit everything and rush to the forest to collect mushrooms. And then your grandmother stops you and says: wait till the mushrooms grow up a little bit. But, have you ever asked yourself where do they come from and they way they grow?
The mushroom itself is a cobweb-like spawn (also called mycelium) that hides in the ground. And the part which is aboveground is called a sponk. Traditionally it is called a mushroom. The mushrooms are bred by the spores. They are too small and you need to look into the microscope to see them. If you accidentally hurtle a smoke-ball you will see a small brown cloud rising up. It contains many spores that come out of the smoke-ball. The honey fungus spores, for instance, can be observed if you put a ripe mushroom cap on a black sheet of paper. In a few hours the released spores will “display” the averted side of the cap, which is a multipath star. On the boletus underneath (for example, the aspen mushroom) you can have a bitmap.
If the one-celled or multi-celled spore gets into a warm or wet nutrient-rich area it will start growing up and dividing. The divided cells will soon take the shape of thin, twisted around fibers, i.e. the spawns. The white small nodules will then appear on the fibers. Later on the familiar circular capped and cylindered mushrooms rise up out of them.
Every time you go collecting mushrooms together with your friends there are contests usually held. Wish to collect mostly cepes, aspens, saffron milk caps and girelles? Then you will certainly find these advices useful.
The earliest mushrooms to break the ground surface are morels and saddles. They are more likely to appear in the second half of April. These are the first spring mushrooms that mostly inhabit the mixed woods or by the woodside and at the mossy ditches and by the forest roads and old fire-pits that left a black ashy spot. You will be lucky to find mushrooms in the clear forest openings, by the stubs heated by the sun!
The most perfect mushroom hunting period falls to the second half of June. One by one the so-wished forest loots start appearing along the way you follow. The biggest part is hidden in mixed forests together with the birch and aspen trees in them as the soil is mainly covered with dry leaves and rare grass types. This area is the most abundant in black mold and humidity level.
The best time for mushroom hunting falls to the early morning. Their caps are dewed and can be seen at a long distance. Moreover, the morning mushrooms are the strongest and odoriferous.
Each mushroom has its specific place for growth. The most appreciated kind of mushroom is a cepe, whereas boletus does well at the steep silvan ravines, by the wood and road side, it is also found in old light forests underneath the spruces and pine trees. They are all different: either with a high, slender vellus or hidden under the moss. If you found a cepe mushroom, try to look carefully, there should be more around.
The yellow boletus usually grows by the forest roads in a flat herbal blanket. They seem fresh when they are still small and resemble a cluster. There is always something like a dry leaf or a herb that gets sticky to it.
At the greensward you can always find saffron milk-caps growing there. There are plenty of them! The old ones have their caps holed by worms. The best are the medium-sized, strong enough saffrons with a center point caved-in and twisted at the sides.
You will surely find green-yellow boletus, bovines and milk mushrooms in the humid pine forest.
Other kinds of mushrooms are also found under the birches and aspens. That’s how they called: the birch boletus and aspen mushroom. However, the birch mushroom can also grow far away from the birch tree, while the elegant, red-capped aspen mushroom is closely connected to the aspen tree.
You will have no trouble looking for the bright, multicolored ressules. They look as if wished to be cut and put into the basket. You can mostly find them in the humid mixed forests and along the healed over ponds.
You will probably come across the friendly groups of yellow girolles growing in the light fringe of a forest among the fallen fir-needles and open grass. The group may comprise one or two stricks.
The most easily collected mushrooms are the honey fungi as they are plain for all to see them. They climb up the stubs as if they were telling you: here we are! Don’t be shy, just pick us up!
Every type is good in its season. You can collect saddles and morels between April and May, the birch boletus, aspen mushrooms and russules are good between June and July. The milk mushrooms and edible boletus grow in July and during August and September the forest is most rich in girolles, variegated boletus, saffron milk-caps and honey fungi.