Hawaii Area: 6,450 sq. mi. (16,706 km2). Population: 1,100,000. Capital: Flonolulu, 377,000. Economy: Military installations, tourism, pineapples, and sugar. Entirely created by volcanoes, Hawaii (huh wy’ ee) is a 1,500 mi. (2,400 km) archipelago of 130 islands in the mid-Pacific, southeast of the mainland and about the same distance from San Francisco as is New York City. The islands were settled by Polynesians from Southeast Asia around 750 ad and were discovered in 1778 by the English explorer James Cook, who named them the Sandwich Islands. Hawaii has the broadest ethnic mix of any state and the highest percentage of Asians (58%). Most Hawaiians live on the five largest islands shown above. Hawaii followed Alaska in entering the Union in 1959. Beautiful weather, a lush tropical environment, native hospitality, and jet travel have created a thriving tourist trade. Honolulu, on the island of Oahu, is the business center and has over 80% of the state’s population. Also located on Oahu is Pearl Harbor, the seaport and naval base that was attacked by the Japanese, bringing the US into World War II. Hawaii, the “Big Island,” was formed by five volcanos; two of them are still active. Maui has the world’s largest inactive crater, about 7 mi. (11.2 km) across. A mountain- top on Kauai, the greenest island, is the wettest spot on the planet, with 460 in. (1,168 cm) of rain annually.